-- and those will be statements from Chairman Baily, as
you heard; it will be from Greg Rohde; from Chairman Kennard; and from
Dr. Wells. So that will eliminate the need for us to send you all stuff
individually. That's being done as we speak, and when it happens, I'll
let you know.
Thank you, and here is Greg.
MR. ROHDE: Okay, thank you. Before we walk through the
memorandum, I wanted to give a little bit of context. Some of this
might be redundant for some of you. But the fact is that currently the
United States enjoys widespread access to the Internet, in large part
because we have a near ubiquitous telephone network. And in recent
years, our cable network, which -- as well over 90 percent of American
homes has provided high-speed Internet access to the Internet.
In addition, the near ubiquitous access to the Internet has also
given us a competitive advantage in the whole electronic commerce
revolution we've seen emerge in recent years. In addition to this, the
United States enjoys a very vibrant, dynamically growing wireless
industry that is growing at a rate of about 30 percent a year.
The development of third generation wireless is going to
dramatically affect both of these significant trends, the Internet as
well as the growth of wireless services. In fact, some predict that
within the next 10 years that about two-thirds of the revenues that come
from services and infrastructure in the wireless industry will come from
data and nonvoice services, which is a dramatic comparison that
currently most of the revenues and most of the services that are over
wireless are voice services.
So, in other words, what that means is the electronic commerce is
strictly becoming mobile commerce and the Internet is getting wings.
And the fact is if the United States does not understand and come up to
the plate with this trend, that we will quickly fall behind and fall
into a competitive disadvantage. So that's why this is so important.
The administration has been working on the development of third
generation wireless for quite some time. In fact, there has been a
great deal of activity this entire year. A lot of activity began early
in the year as a number of federal agencies -- Department of Defense,
the FCC, the NTIA and others and State -- developed the U.S. position
going into the World Radio Conference.
One of the top issues that was addressed this year in the World
Radio Conference, which was held in Istanbul in May, was to look at the
question of identifying certain spectrum bands that would be used for
the development of third generation wireless or allocated for third
The United States succeeded in accomplishing our goals with respect
to this issue at that conference. And that we advocated a policy that
would provide maximum flexibility to administrations to identify what
spectrum bands they want to develop for third-generation wireless. And
we were very pleased at that result.
Now, what this does, though, is, that success now puts us in a
position of now having to face the challenge as to, where are we going
to look for additional spectrUM for third-generation wireless? The
bands that were identified at the World Radio Conference include our
existing first- and second-generation cellular and PCS services. And
one of the objectives that we've had is to allow for these first- and
second-generation services to evolve into third-generation services.
We're already starting to see that happen. That's a very important
development from the United States's perspective.
Now, we also have the challenge of looking ahead as to, if we're
going to need additional spectrum, where will that come from? The
challenge that we have for the United States that's relatively unique is
that we don't have unencumbered spectrum -- that the spectrum bands that
were identified at WRC have heavy incumbent use. And so that puts us in
a very difficult spot, and a very challenging spot.
The purpose of this memorandum today, signed by President Clinton,
is to set up a process through which the federal agencies that are
affected -- with the private sector, will proceed to address these
issues and identify the necessary spectrum to develop third-generation
So with that, I want to outline -- and again, this memorandum,
copies of this will be made available to you. But I'm going to outline
very briefly -- there are five principles of which the President is
directing the federal agencies, to guide them as they proceed in this
The first principle is that the executive departments and agencies
are to work -- are to work cooperatively with the Federal Communications
Commission and the industry to identify the necessary spectrum that can
be allocated for third-generation wireless use by July 2001.
Second principle is that incumbent users of spectrum that is
identified for reallocation, or for sharing, must be treated equitably,
and we must take national security and public safety into account.
Third principle is that the federal government must remain
technologically neutral as we develop third generation wireless. We do
not want to have a circumstance where the government is directing the
standards for third generation wireless, or specific technology, that we
want to allow for technologic neutrality.
The fourth principle is that the federal government is going to
support policies to encourage competition and flexibility in these
allocations. We want to maintain additional support for competition
within the wireless industry, where we've seen great success so far.
And the fifth principle is that the federal government must support
the industry efforts to identify and harmonize spectrum globally and
regionally. Included in this memorandum are four specific directives.
The first one is the President is directing the Secretary of Commerce to
work cooperatively with the Federal Communications Commission and with
all the other affected agencies within the federal government, to
develop by October 20, 2000, a plan to select spectrums for third
generation wireless systems.
And also this directive is to require an interim report be
developed by November 15th of 2000 on the current spectrum uses within
our -- within the bands that have been identified by (inaudible). In
other words, by October 20th, the President is asking the Commerce
Department to lead an effort to develop a game plan as to how we're
going to go about, over the next several months or next couple years, to
identify second and third generation wireless.
And in that game plan, we are to develop a report, an interim
report, by November 15th of this year, as to what is in the incumbent
bands that have been identified by the World Radio Conference. The
second directive is to the Secretary of Commerce to lead an industry
outreach effort, working of course -- that the other federal agencies
and the Federal Communications Commission to reach out the industry.
It's very important in this process that we have not only
collaboration and cooperation amongst government agencies, but also it
is equally important that we have a collaborative and close working
relationship with U.S. industry as we proceed to this process.
The third directive in this memorandum is to the Secretaries of
Defense, Treasury, Transportation and heads of other executive
departments and agencies that are affected by the spectrum to work
cooperatively within this process and enforce -- there is a directive to
the Department of State to participate in this process and also to
coordinate the evolving views of the United States government with
foreign governments and their national bodies to ensure that we have
effective global roaming, which is one of the goals of third generation
So with that, I'll be happy to answer questions after other
statements have been made. Thank you.
MODERATOR: Great. Thanks, Greg. Lin Wells will talk about the
Defense Department's views on this issue.
MR. WELLS: DOD is pleased the presidential decision memorandum on
third generation wireless services has been released and -- the
President has provided. DOD looks forward to continuing in full
cooperation with NTIA and FCC in the studies to consider all possible
operations for 3G wireless.
DOD is working closely with them during the spectrum identification
and decision-making process. Both DOD and Commerce agree national
security must be protected. At the same time, DOD has an interest in a
strong commercial industry because the Department uses a great deal of
MODERATOR: Great. Thank you. Bill? William Kennard, Chairman of
the FCC, will talk about the FCC's perspective on this issue.
MR. KENNARD: Thank you, Tom. As many of you know, for most of
this year, I have been warning of spectrum drought in this country if we
do not take the steps now to make sure that we are freeing up more
spectrum for services such as third-generation wireless. As the
Internet migrates out of the personal computer and into wireless
web-enabled devices, spectrum management is becoming increasingly
important. Indeed, spectrum, or the absence of spectrum in some cases,
is emerging as a major (inaudible) factor for the new economy. That's
why it's so important that we elevate spectrum management to a national
That's why we're very pleased at the FCC to see the President and
the Vice President focused on a coordinated federal government approach
to spectrum management. This is important not only for all the reasons
outlined in the CEA report, and all the benefits to our economy, but it
also is very important to the competition policies that we are working
so hard at the FCC to promote.
As we see more wireless providers entering the marketplace and
providing not only more innovative services, but also more innovative
pricing structures, more and more consumers are finding that wireless
phones are an acceptable substitute for the wire-line phones. And that,
of course, is great for competition.
Let me outline now a couple of the upcoming events that you can
watch for as we roll out this plan. As Greg mentioned, we are going to
be working closely with NTIA and all the other relevant government
agencies. And we'll be looking to release the interim results of our
studies on November 15th of this year, studying the possibility of using
spectrum that is currently encumbered and freeing that spectrum up for
At the WRC Conference in Istanbul, world governments identified
three spectrum bands that could be used for 3G. We are going to be
focusing a lot of attention on the spectrum identified in the 2500
megahertz band, which is currently encumbered by multi-point
distribution services and instructional television fixed service. NTIA
is going to be working with the Department of Defense and other agencies
to study the use of the 1700 megahertz band. And we'll be working
closely on releasing interim results of our studies on November 15th.
Now, the FCC goal is to release by the end of the year the notice
of proposed rule-making, which will identify these and other possible
bands for use for 3G. We will go out for public comment and
aggressively solicit comment from all the stakeholders in the industry
and in government. And our goal is to allocate spectrum for 3G services
by July 30th of 2001. This will involve a rule making both to allocate
the spectrum and also to establish the service and option rules,
culminating in a competitive bidding or option for the spectrum by
September 30th of 2002. So that is our plan, but obviously it's going
to involve a lot of coordination among the federal government agencies,
and that's why it's so important to have the President's involvement
I neglected to mention that while the November 15th studies are
interim studies, we hope to have final studies by March 1 of 2001, and
this will hopefully dovetail with our rule making process, so that the
study process among the federal agencies will be moving in parallel to
our rule making process. This is very important, because after lots of
discussion among the people represented on this call, we decided that
it's really not feasible for there to be the federal agency coordination
to end, and then the FCC rule making process begin, because that would
probably push us off beyond September 30th of 2002, when we want to have
So we are obviously embarked on an aggressive program, and a very
necessary program for the country.
MR. KALIL: Great, thank you very much. The other thing that I
wanted to mention is that this is an action that has very strong support
from industry, and I think if you don't have them, we could certainly
make available to you the statements from the major industry
associations, including CTIA, representing the Cellular industry, PCIA,
representing the personal communications industry, and TIA, representing
the telecommunications equipment manufacturers.
So with that, why don't we open it up for questions. You can
either direct your question to someone specific, or just ask general
questions and I'll field it to somebody.
Q I had a question for Chairman Kennard. I wondered if you
were considering your speech earlier this week to the Museum of
Broadcasters, or whatever they call that place up in New York. I
wondered if you were hopeful of getting any of the spectrum from the
MR. KENNARD: Oh, absolutely. Doug, as you know, one of the
centerpieces of that speech is finding a way to accelerate the return of
the analog broadcast spectrum, so that it can be reauctioned sooner
rather than later. That, of course, is the congressional plan that was
outlined in the '96 Telecommunications Act and it's essential if we're
going to expedite the digital TV transition.
But the plan that Congress laid out in the '96 act is that that
analog spectrum would be returned and reauctioned and, as you know, when
we auction spectrum, we auction it for flexible use, so it could be used
for a variety of things.
Q I guess my question, though, is do you think you're going to
be able to get that spectrum by the time you said you wanted to allocate
it, which was -- when did you say -- allocate by July 30, 2001?
MR. KENNARD: Well, the analog spectrum should be reauctioned by
2002, according to the congressional directive. And we will be
proceeding to try to expedite the return of that spectrum and, in this
process, identify other spectrum that is encumbered that can be freed up
for other uses as well, so that frequencies are really moving in tandem.
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg Rohde from NTIA. I want to make a
clarifying point about that particular spectrum. It's important to
understand that that spectrum that Chairman Kennard is speaking about is
not within one of the bands identified by the World Radio Conference and
therefore is not part of the process that we were speaking about today
with respect to this memorandum that we'll be evaluating.
That doesn't suggest that that spectrum cannot be used for third
generation wireless services. But I just wanted to make sure everybody
understood that that spectrum is not within one of the bands that were
identified by the World Radio Conference and is also not part of the two
studies that Chairman Kennard spoke to that NTIA and the FCC are going
to do on the incumbent use.
Q Greg, is the military still seen as a likely source of this 3G
spectrum and, if so, how much will you need of it? And they claim that
it's going to take at least 30 years and several hundred million dollars
for them to move off that spectrum to free it up.
MR. ROHDE: Well, I'll tell you what we know at this point. At
this stage, there are two basic blocks of spectra that we are looking
at, that are equal options with respect to identifying for reallocation.
One of those blocks is the 1755 to 1850 band, which the DOD is now the
major incumbent in that band. That is one of the blocks we are looking
at. And the interim report that I spoke to, that will be developed by
November 15th, 2000, and the final report that Chairman Kennard
mentioned, are going to be looking at that band, as well as the 2500
band to 2690, which is under the jurisdiction of the FCC. That is a
commercial band which currently provides for MMDS and ITFS services.
So as Chairman Kennard said, NTIA is looking at the 1755 to 1850
band. The FCC is looking at the 2500 to 2690 band. Both of these are
both going to be examined thoroughly. And the options of looking for a
reallocation out of these bands are equal amongst these two bands.
Q Question for Tom Kalil. Is the White House committed to
seeing the C and F block auctions go forward on December 12th? And will
the White House veto attempts to delay the auctions as part of the
MR. KALIL: The administration is committed to seeing these
auctions go forward in December. But I'm not in a position to make a
statement on vetoing a particular bill over a particular rider. But
we're strongly committed to seeing those auctions go forward.
Q Why is this coming out now?
MR. KALIL: The reason this is coming out now is that this follows
on the heels of the World Conference, in which there was an
international decision about which blocks of spectra were to be used for
Q Did the Chairman's speech recently -- you know, the fight over
700 megahertz -- prompt this in any way, or --
MR. KALIL: No. No. This was in the works already.
MR. KENNARD: Yes.
Q A question for DOD, please -- the services that they're
currently operating in the 1755 to 1860 band identified, and what it
will cost to remove those?
MR. WELLS: Services are satellite operations uplink, air combat
maneuvering, mobile (inaudible) for tactical radio relays. We don't
know yet the cost to relocate; that's one of the purposes of doing this
whole study process.
MR. KALIL: But also options for sharing it, and band segmentation
will be considered, as opposed to just sort of whole-cloth kind of
relocating use of that space.
Q Currently, don't the deployed forces in Kosovo and Bosnia use
MSE as one of their primary means of communication?
MR. WELLS: Certainly this is an important issue for us, and that's
one of the reasons why we're concerned that national security concerns
be adequately considered. Also, our issue is to find a comparable
spectrum if we do have to relocate. So we'll be watching this very
carefully, but look forward to working with all the players to make sure
that the equities are protected.
Q But Mr. Wells, is that a "yes" to the fact that the deployed
forces in Bosnia and Kosovo, the Army forces, use MSE extensively?
MR. WELLS: I believe that is correct. I will get back and verify
it. But that's my understanding.
Q I have a question for Tom Kalil. I thought the military had
previously committed itself to a November 15th deadline to submit a
report. Why was it necessary for the President to submit an executive
order, to order that?
MR. KALIL: No, I -- the administration, the President issued this
executive memorandum as a way of encouraging inter-agency cooperation,
laying out a set of principles and a set of action items, and also
elevating this issue, because we think this is really important.
Q Does that suggest there wasn't cooperation?
MR. KALIL: No.
Q Question for Chairman Kennard. There are emerging three and
five gigahertz options for MNDS coming out in the industry. Do you
think that competitive pressures alone can be accelerated to remove MMDS
for two and a half, or will this require some form of eventual mandate?
MR. KENNARD: It's unclear. It's important for us to recognize
that at this point, we are very, very open minded as to which of these
bands will ultimately be used. We have a lot of work to do, to study
the cost and benefits of using the spectrum. What is clear is that
whatever spectrum is identified will require moving out incumbents in
the band. And what we'll have to do with these studies is evaluate
carefully what the cost and benefits of that will be.
Q Another question for Chairman Kennard. I was somehow under
the impression that the federal government, and FCC in particular, was
already looking for 3G spectrum. What exactly is the force of this
MR. KENNARD: Well we are, as you know, we're an independent
agency, charged with managing the spectrum. So we're always trying to
identify the relevant spectrum for 3G. But this is an extraordinary
circumstance here, because we are coordinating both with the government
internationally, and we have to coordinate with the other relevant
federal agencies. In fact, if you look at our communications act, we're
charged by Congress with coordinating with NTIA on managing the
spectrum. So we can't do this in a vacuum by ourselves. We have to
work closely with our colleagues in the federal government.
Q Chairman Kennard, will this affect the Commission's plan for
the March auction of the 700 megahertz spectrum?
MR. KENNARD: No, again, that's really moving on a separate track.
The 700 megahertz spectrum, as Greg Rohde pointed out, was not
identified in the Work 2000 and it's not the subject of these studies.
Q How much spectrum are you trying to free up here exactly? Is
there a limit, a number?
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg Rohde, from NTIA. The World Radio
Conference looked at the question of whether or not there should be up
to 160 megahertz allocated for third generation services by the year
2010. That was the recommendation by the World Radio Conference.
Q 150 megahertz.
MR. ROHDE: Well, 160 Megahertz by the year 2010. Right now at
this point, we don't know that. That's what these studies are about
that NTIA and the FCC are going to do, is we first of all assess what is
our spectrum need and that also points to the need to have a great deal
of coordination and cooperation with the U.S. industry to make this
So the first step is we have to assess what our needs are and then
secondly we have to look at, if we need additional spectrum, which we
anticipate we may need additional spectrum, where are we going to get
that? And we have to then go through the process of looking at how can
we move certain services to other spectrum bands, what are the costs of
moving those services, what's the time frame for moving services. And
we have to do all that evaluation when we get to that point.
I wanted to make one other point that is very important to
understand, particularly with respect to the military ban. And that is,
it's a matter of law that if an incumbent is being moved, that there is
provisions made to continue on those services. So one thing that is not
on the table, we are not looking at what kind of services we could shut
down that are currently being used; we are looking at can we move those
services to another band. So that's really what the question is. It's
not a matter of threatening an existing service; it's a matter of can
you do that somewhere else in order to free up spectrum.
Q But, excuse me. But for Tom Kalil or anybody else there, it's
my understanding that under the way the law is written, that insofar as
relocation costs that a commercial provider, a mobile phone company or
anybody else, that money would go directly into the U.S. Treasury and
the Department of Defense would not be able to use any of it unless the
law is changed; is that correct?
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg from NTIA. At this point, there are no
provisions in the law that would require the revenues to go to an
incumbent user to offset them. There is a requirement in the law that
says that the incumbent must be reimbursed for the cost of their moving.
And so you are correct in that if, indeed, this process resulted in a
recommendation to say we were going to move somebody, and we wanted to
use those revenues to cover those costs of moving, that would probably
require a change in the statute.
Q The 700 megahertz I know is a completely separate issue, but
it has highlighted a problem with incumbered spectrum. There's a whole
problem now with getting the broadcasters off there, all the thing --
are you going to find a way to sort of avoid that quagmire with
(inaudible), identify in the future? Any plans for how to get people
off the spectrum without creating any problem?
MR. KALIL: The 700 megahertz spectrum is somewhat unique in that
it was subject to a Congressional plan that was outlined in the '96 act.
As I've stated recently, I think that we need to re-evaluate whether
that plan will work to move the incumbents out of that spectrum, and
facilitate DTV. But I really think we have to look at 700 megahertz as
unique, because it was subject to a congressional plan that established
the deadline and what requirements had to be met, which is not directly
relevant to the spectrum we're dealing with.
Q Chairman Kennard, what do you envision for the idea
-- providers right now, using it for a video and so forth, if that be
MR. KENNARD: I'm sorry?
Q How do you envision dealing with the idea best users right
MR. KENNARD: Well, in our studies, we're going to evaluate how the
spectrum is being used, and what alternatives are available, if we have
to relocate those services out of the 2500 megahertz band.
Increasingly, all of our spectrum is becoming more valuable, but we're
seeing increasing demand for that spectrum for multi-channel video use,
and also for mobile data uses. And so we're going to evaluate the
technology that's available for wireless mobile use for that spectrum,
and whether it can be transferred elsewhere, and what the cost would be.
MR. KALIL: Okay, this is Tom Kalil. We've got time for two more
Q Yeah, can I ask you, can someone answer -- which of these
dates that you have shown are newly set? I understand that September
2002 deadline for auction was already there. And even though you are
speeding up the process, that final goal is still unchanged. Is there
any way that auction date can be earlier is there actually no change in
the schedule here?
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg from NTIA. The reason for that deadline
in here, it's September 2002, that is because NTIA has already provided
to the FCC the spectrum that is within one of the bands identified at
the spectrum between 1710 and 1755 as well as 2110 and about 2160. And
those bands have already been allocated to the FCC under a previous
order from Congress. I believe it was the 1997 Budget Act.
And the reason we put that date down there is that it makes sense
for us to understand what we're going to do with 1755 to 1850, whether
or not that's going to be part of a reallocation before the FCC is
required by statute to auction off those two other small blocks that are
within that larger band that was identified in the World Radio
So that is where that date comes from, is that we should really --
we use that date to back up from to make our decisions.
Q Chairman Kennard, I have a question about the deadline. If
the auction isn't for another two years and other countries have already
auctioned off spectrum, how are we then to stay ahead of these other
MR. KENNARD: Well, we are going to continue to work aggressively
to get our spectrum allocated as quickly as possible. It's really not a
question of staying ahead or not; it's really a question of making sure
we are doing everything we can to get our spectrum allocated as quickly
as we can.
You know, we face challenges that other countries don't, in that we
already have a much more congested use of our bands. And so we have got
to really work aggressively to meet our deadline. If we can get this
done in advance of the September 30, 2002, deadline, all to the better.
Q Can I just step in? Isn't it possible that some of the
existing wireless spectrum holders can migrate their existing spectrum
into 3G? The additional spectrum would lower the cost and create more
competition but I thought it was possible that some of the existing
spectrum could be used for that?
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg from NTIA. I said -- I think I referred
to that earlier. That was one of the reasons why we fought for the
multiple bands at the World Radio Conference. And, indeed, that's
what's already happening. It's not like U.S. industry is standing
still. U.S. industry is actually moving ahead very quickly.
The question before us is how do we allocate -- we need to
reallocate more spectrum to allow it to grow even faster. So it's not
like in the interim nothing is happening. There are carriers already
migrating with -- services.
Q Can somebody tell us roughly what percentage of the available
or possibly usable spectrum is now controlled by the Defense Department?
MODERATOR: Can you repeat the question, please?
Q Yeah. I mean, roughly, how much of the spectrum that could
conceivably be used for 3G is now claimed by the Defense Department?
MR. KALIL: I think we will have a better answer for you of that
when the study is completed.
Q Well, I mean, surely, you have to have some sort of ballpark.
You can characterize it any way you want, but --
MR. ROHDE: Well, currently -- this is Greg from NTIA -- within the
three bands identified by the World Radio Conference, it looks like it's
only -- there's 100 megahertz which is 1755 to 1850. There is another
block between 2025 and about 2110, which is both government and
non-government, that's within those bands, but really I think the answer
to your question is probably about 100 megahertz, and that's the thing
Q I know you mentioned that it's important to have our U.S.
technology companies get in first, and don't fall behind. But
specifically, what is the big deal if we fall behind on 3G? What
problems will we face?
MR. KALIL: Martin, do you want to talk about sort of the
importance of first mover advantages, something that was highlighted in
the CGS study?
MR. BAILY: Well, I think experience with information technology
has been that there is some geographic specificity if you get -- if you
have the ability to develop industries around the area, so that it's
really important that we locate some of the new industries and new
technologies here in the United States. And we've seen that happen
obviously in the high tech sectors in the United States. We're seeing
it now happening in Finland, where they have moved toward the 3G and
they're beginning to set up locations there.
Now, some of the companies that are operating there are American
companies like HP, and so again it's not that American companies will
necessarily be shut out, but it does make a difference to have that
technology available in the United States as soon as possible and to the
greatest extent possible.
MR. KALIL: I mean, just to give you an example, I think it's fair
to say that companies like Cisco have benefited from the fact that the
Internet happened in the United States before it happened in the rest of
the world. So there's a real advantage to U.S. companies for having the
United States continue to be the center of innovation and new
And I think that, although we have some issues in terms of more a
suggested spectrum in the United States, an advantage that we have is
lots of small entrepreneurial companies that are developing software and
applications, a very strong venture capital sector that can invest in
these new high tech start ups. So I think the U.S., although we've got
some challenges to deal with, is very well positioned to maintain its
leadership in this area.
Q Who was speaking, I'm sorry?
MR. KALIL: Tom Kalil.
Q I'll follow up on the education and the ITFX spectrum. You
know, there isn't an elected leader in this country that's not all for
education, particularly the ones running for office. But what I take
away from this press conference is that the ITFS spectrum is really up
for grabs. So instead of helping to educate children, we're going to
auction it off to the highest bidder, so that people can buy flowers
while walking down the street with their cell phones. If you would
address yourself to this question?
MR. KALIL: Well, again, let me be really clear about this process.
We're not proposing to take away spectrum from any incumbent user and
leave them with no spectrum at all. We're looking at ways that we can
relocate them to other uses. And this is what we've done historically
in this country. That's one of the reasons why we have a PCS industry
in this country, because we found a way to relocate the incumbent
microwave users in those bands and find ways that they were compensated
and able to find spectrum uses elsewhere.
So, you know, I don't want there to be confusion here that we're
going to pull the plug on any incumbent user, be it a defense use or a
Q -- guarantee today that they'll have exactly the same amount
of spectrum when this process is done, the ITFS users, as when they
MR. ROHDE: This is Greg from NTIA. I'd just refer you back to the
presidential memorandum, where it's very clear that one of the
principles that's going to drive this process is that incumbents are
going to be treated equitably, and that we are going to address the
incumbents. It's the only way that we can move ahead and be successful
in this process.
So if this process were to denigrate into a spectrum grab, and not
take care of the incumbent needs, we won't succeed in moving ahead. So
it's very clear in the President's memorandum that this is a key
principle on which we're going to move ahead, whether that incumbent is
commercial or a non-profit educational incumbent, or whether it's a
MODERATOR: Thank you all very much. Thank you very much for
participating in the call.