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Variable Substitution
variables
Substitution Description
$var
${var}
These are replaced by words from the value of var, each separated by a space character. If var is an environment variable, its value is returned (but  ‘:’ modifiers and the other forms given below are not available).
$var[index]
${var[index]}
These select only the indicated words from the value of var. Variable substitution is applied to index, which may consist of (or result in) a either single number, two numbers separated by a ‘-‘, or an asterisk. Words are indexed starting from 1; a ‘*’ selects all words. If the first number of a range is omitted (as with $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1. If the last number of a range is omitted (as with $argv[1-]), it defaults to $#var (the word count). It is not an error for a range to be empty if the second argument is omitted (or within range).
$#name
${#name}
These give the number of words in the variable.
 $0 This substitutes the name of the file from which command input is being read except for setuid shell scripts. An error occurs if the name is not known.
$n
${n}
Equivalent to $argv[n].
$* Equivalent to $argv[*].

Modifiers Description
# The entire command line typed so far.
0 The first input word (command).
n The n’th argument.
^ The first argument, that is, 1.
$ The last argument.
% The word matched by (the most recent) ?s search.
x-y A range of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.
? All the arguments, or a null value if there is just one word in the event.
x* Abbreviates x-$.
x- Like x* but omitting word $.


Non-modifiable Description
$?var
${?var}
Substitutes the string 1 if var is set or 0 if it is not set.
$?0 Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or 0 if it is not.
$$ Substitute the process number of the (parent) shell.
$< Substitutes a line from the standard input, with no further interpretation thereafter. It can be used to read from the keyboard in a C shell script.


 

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