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Church Of The
Swimming Elephant


Variable Substitution
Substitution Description
These are replaced by words from the value of var, each separated by a space character. If var is an environment variable, its value is returned (but  ‘:’ modifiers and the other forms given below are not available).
These select only the indicated words from the value of var. Variable substitution is applied to index, which may consist of (or result in) a either single number, two numbers separated by a ‘-‘, or an asterisk. Words are indexed starting from 1; a ‘*’ selects all words. If the first number of a range is omitted (as with $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1. If the last number of a range is omitted (as with $argv[1-]), it defaults to $#var (the word count). It is not an error for a range to be empty if the second argument is omitted (or within range).
These give the number of words in the variable.
 $0 This substitutes the name of the file from which command input is being read except for setuid shell scripts. An error occurs if the name is not known.
Equivalent to $argv[n].
$* Equivalent to $argv[*].

Modifiers Description
# The entire command line typed so far.
0 The first input word (command).
n The n’th argument.
^ The first argument, that is, 1.
$ The last argument.
% The word matched by (the most recent) ?s search.
x-y A range of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.
? All the arguments, or a null value if there is just one word in the event.
x* Abbreviates x-$.
x- Like x* but omitting word $.

Non-modifiable Description
Substitutes the string 1 if var is set or 0 if it is not set.
$?0 Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or 0 if it is not.
$$ Substitute the process number of the (parent) shell.
$< Substitutes a line from the standard input, with no further interpretation thereafter. It can be used to read from the keyboard in a C shell script.



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