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1. Motivation Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
1. Motivation

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Next: 2. Standards for Subnet Addressing

1. Motivation

1. Motivation

The original view of the Internet universe was a two-level hierarchy: the top level the Internet as a whole, and the level below it individual networks, each with its own network number. The Internet does not have a hierarchical topology, rather the interpretation of addresses is hierarchical. In this two-level model, each host sees its network as a single entity; that is, the network may be treated as a "black box" to which a set of hosts is connected.

While this view has proved simple and powerful, a number of organizations have found it inadequate, and have added a third level to the interpretation of Internet addresses. In this view, a given Internet network is divided into a collection of subnets.

The three-level model is useful in networks belonging to moderately large organizations (e.g., Universities or companies with more than one building), where it is often necessary to use more than one LAN cable to cover a "local area". Each LAN may then be treated as a subnet.

There are several reasons why an organization might use more than one cable to cover a campus:

  • Different technologies: Especially in a research environment, there may be more than one kind of LAN in use; e.g., an organization may have some equipment that supports Ethernet, and some that supports a ring network.

  • Limits of technologies: Most LAN technologies impose limits, based on electrical parameters, on the number of hosts connected, and on the total length of the cable. It is easy to exceed these limits, especially those on cable length.

  • Network congestion: It is possible for a small subset of the hosts on a LAN to monopolize most of the bandwidth. A common solution to this problem is to divide the hosts into cliques of high mutual communication, and put these cliques on separate cables.

  • Point-to-Point links: Sometimes a "local area", such as a university campus, is split into two locations too far apart to connect using the preferred LAN technology. In this case, high-speed point-to-point links might connect several LANs.

An organization that has been forced to use more than one LAN has three choices for assigning Internet addresses:

  1. Acquire a distinct Internet network number for each cable; subnets are not used at all.

  2. Use a single network number for the entire organization, but assign host numbers without regard to which LAN a host is on ("transparent subnets").

  3. Use a single network number, and partition the host address space by assigning subnet numbers to the LANs ("explicit subnets").

Each of these approaches has disadvantages. The first, although not requiring any new or modified protocols, results in an explosion in the size of Internet routing tables. Information about the internal details of local connectivity is propagated everywhere, although it is of little or no use outside the local organization. Especially as some current gateway implementations do not have much space for routing tables, it would be good to avoid this problem.

The second approach requires some convention or protocol that makes the collection of LANs appear to be a single Internet network. For example, this can be done on LANs where each Internet address is translated to a hardware address using an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), by having the bridges between the LANs intercept ARP requests for non-local targets, see RFC-925 [2]. However, it is not possible to do this for all LAN technologies, especially those where ARP protocols are not currently used, or if the LAN does not support broadcasts. A more fundamental problem is that bridges must discover which LAN a host is on, perhaps by using a broadcast algorithm. As the number of LANs grows, the cost of broadcasting grows as well; also, the size of translation caches required in the bridges grows with the total number of hosts in the network.

The third approach is to explicitly support subnets. This does have a disadvantage, in that it is a modification of the Internet Protocol, and thus requires changes to IP implementations already in use (if these implementations are to be used on a subnetted network). However, these changes are relatively minor, and once made, yield a simple and efficient solution to the problem. Also, the approach avoids any changes that would be incompatible with existing hosts on non-subnetted networks.

Further, when appropriate design choices are made, it is possible for hosts which believe they are on a non-subnetted network to be used on a subnetted one, as explained in RFC-917 [1]. This is useful when it is not possible to modify some of the hosts to support subnets explicitly, or when a gradual transition is preferred.


Next: 2. Standards for Subnet Addressing

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
1. Motivation

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