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Church Of The
Swimming Elephant

RFC 2065 Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
RFC 2065

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RFC 2065

RFC 2065

Network Working Group
Request for Comments: 2065
Updates: 1034, 1035
Category: Standards Track

D. Eastlake, 3rd
C. Kaufman
January 1997

Domain Name System Security Extensions

Status of this Memo

This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


The Domain Name System (DNS) has become a critical operational part of the Internet infrastructure yet it has no strong security mechanisms to assure data integrity or authentication. Extensions to the DNS are described that provide these services to security aware resolvers or applications through the use of cryptographic digital signatures. These digital signatures are included in secured zones as resource records. Security can still be provided even through non-security aware DNS servers in many cases.

The extensions also provide for the storage of authenticated public keys in the DNS. This storage of keys can support general public key distribution service as well as DNS security. The stored keys enable security aware resolvers to learn the authenticating key of zones in addition to those for which they are initially configured. Keys associated with DNS names can be retrieved to support other protocols. Provision is made for a variety of key types and algorithms.

In addition, the security extensions provide for the optional authentication of DNS protocol transactions.


The significant contributions of the following persons (in alphabetic order) to this document are gratefully acknowledged:

           Harald T. Alvestrand
           Madelyn Badger
           Scott Bradner
           Matt Crawford
           James M. Galvin
           Olafur Gudmundsson
           Edie Gunter
           Sandy Murphy
           Masataka Ohta
           Michael A. Patton
           Jeffrey I. Schiller

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Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
RFC 2065


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