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Key features and algorithms of the BGP-4 protocol. Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
Key features and algorithms of the BGP-4 protocol.

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Key features and algorithms of the BGP-4 protocol.

Key features and algorithms of the BGP-4 protocol.

This section summarizes the key features and algorithms of the BGP protocol. BGP is an inter-autonomous system routing protocol; it is designed to be used between multiple autonomous systems. BGP assumes that routing within an autonomous system is done by an intra- autonomous system routing protocol. BGP does not make any assumptions about intra-autonomous system routing protocols employed by the various autonomous systems. Specifically, BGP does not require all autonomous systems to run the same intra-autonomous system routing protocol.

BGP is a real inter-autonomous system routing protocol. It imposes no constraints on the underlying Internet topology. The information exchanged via BGP is sufficient to construct a graph of autonomous systems connectivity from which routing loops may be pruned and some routing policy decisions at the autonomous system level may be enforced.

The key features of the protocol are the notion of path attributes and aggregation of network layer reachability information (NLRI).

Path attributes provide BGP with flexibility and expandability. Path attributes are partitioned into well-known and optional. The provision for optional attributes allows experimentation that may involve a group of BGP routers without affecting the rest of the Internet. New optional attributes can be added to the protocol in much the same fashion as new options are added to the Telnet protocol, for instance.

One of the most important path attributes is the AS-PATH. AS reachability information traverses the Internet, this information is augmented by the list of autonomous systems that have been traversed thus far, forming the AS-PATH. The AS-PATH allows straightforward suppression of the looping of routing information. In addition, the AS-PATH serves as a powerful and versatile mechanism for policy-based routing.

BGP-4 enhances the AS-PATH attribute to include sets of autonomous systems as well as lists. This extended format allows generated aggregate routes to carry path information from the more specific routes used to generate the aggregate.

BGP uses an algorithm that cannot be classified as either a pure distance vector, or a pure link state. Carrying a complete AS path in the AS-PATH attribute allows to reconstruct large portions of the overall topology. That makes it similar to the link state algorithms. Exchanging only the currently used routes between the peers makes it similar to the distance vector algorithms.

To conserve bandwidth and processing power, BGP uses incremental updates, where after the initial exchange of complete routing information, a pair of BGP routers exchanges only changes (deltas) to that information. Technique of incremental updates requires reliable transport between a pair of BGP routers. To achieve this functionality BGP uses TCP as its transport.

In addition to incremental updates, BGP-4 has added the concept of route aggregation so that information about groups of networks may represented as a single entity.

BGP is a self-contained protocol. That is, it specifies how routing information is exchanged both between BGP speakers in different autonomous systems, and between BGP speakers within a single autonomous system.

To allow graceful coexistence with EGP and OSPF, BGP provides support for carrying both EGP and OSPF derived exterior routes BGP also allows to carry statically defined exterior routes or routes derived by other IGP information.

Next: BGP performance characteristics and scalability

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
Key features and algorithms of the BGP-4 protocol.


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