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8. BGP Finite State machine. Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
8. BGP Finite State machine.

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8. BGP Finite State machine.

8. BGP Finite State machine.

This section specifies BGP operation in terms of a Finite State Machine (FSM). Following is a brief summary and overview of BGP operations by state as determined by this FSM. A condensed version of the BGP FSM is found in Appendix 1.

      Initially BGP is in the Idle state.

      Idle state:

         In this state BGP refuses all incoming BGP connections.  No
         resources are allocated to the peer.  In response to the Start
         event (initiated by either system or operator) the local system
         initializes all BGP resources, starts the ConnectRetry timer,
         initiates a transport connection to other BGP peer, while
         listening for connection that may be initiated by the remote
         BGP peer, and changes its state to Connect.  The exact value of
         the ConnectRetry timer is a local matter, but should be
         sufficiently large to allow TCP initialization.

         If a BGP speaker detects an error, it shuts down the connection
         and changes its state to Idle. Getting out of the Idle state
         requires generation of the Start event.  If such an event is
         generated automatically, then persistent BGP errors may result
         in persistent flapping of the speaker.  To avoid such a
         condition it is recommended that Start events should not be
         generated immediately for a peer that was previously
         transitioned to Idle due to an error. For a peer that was
         previously transitioned to Idle due to an error, the time
         between consecutive generation of Start events, if such events
         are generated automatically, shall exponentially increase. The
         value of the initial timer shall be 60 seconds. The time shall
         be doubled for each consecutive retry.

         Any other event received in the Idle state is ignored.

      Connect state:

         In this state BGP is waiting for the transport protocol
         connection to be completed.

         If the transport protocol connection succeeds, the local system
         clears the ConnectRetry timer, completes initialization, sends
         an OPEN message to its peer, and changes its state to OpenSent.

         If the transport protocol connect fails (e.g., retransmission
         timeout), the local system restarts the ConnectRetry timer,
         continues to listen for a connection that may be initiated by
         the remote BGP peer, and changes its state to Active state.

         In response to the ConnectRetry timer expired event, the local
         system restarts the ConnectRetry timer, initiates a transport
         connection to other BGP peer, continues to listen for a
         connection that may be initiated by the remote BGP peer, and
         stays in the Connect state.

         Start event is ignored in the Active state.

         In response to any other event (initiated by either system or
         operator), the local system releases all BGP resources
         associated with this connection and changes its state to Idle.

      Active state:

         In this state BGP is trying to acquire a peer by initiating a
         transport protocol connection.

         If the transport protocol connection succeeds, the local system
         clears the ConnectRetry timer, completes initialization, sends
         an OPEN message to its peer, sets its Hold Timer to a large
         value, and changes its state to OpenSent.  A Hold Timer value
         of 4 minutes is suggested.

         In response to the ConnectRetry timer expired event, the local
         system restarts the ConnectRetry timer, initiates a transport
         connection to other BGP peer, continues to listen for a
         connection that may be initiated by the remote BGP peer, and
         changes its state to Connect.

         If the local system detects that a remote peer is trying to
         establish BGP connection to it, and the IP address of the
         remote peer is not an expected one, the local system restarts
         the ConnectRetry timer, rejects the attempted connection,
         continues to listen for a connection that may be initiated by
         the remote BGP peer, and stays in the Active state.

         Start event is ignored in the Active state.

         In response to any other event (initiated by either system or
         operator), the local system releases all BGP resources
         associated with this connection and changes its state to Idle.

      OpenSent state:

         In this state BGP waits for an OPEN message from its peer.
         When an OPEN message is received, all fields are checked for
         correctness.  If the BGP message header checking or OPEN
         message checking detects an error (see Section 6.2), or a
         connection collision (see Section 6.8) the local system sends a
         NOTIFICATION message and changes its state to Idle.

         If there are no errors in the OPEN message, BGP sends a
         KEEPALIVE message and sets a KeepAlive timer.  The Hold Timer,
         which was originally set to a large value (see above), is
         replaced with the negotiated Hold Time value (see section 4.2).
         If the negotiated Hold Time value is zero, then the Hold Time
         timer and KeepAlive timers are not started.  If the value of
         the Autonomous System field is the same as the local Autonomous
         System number, then the connection is an "internal" connection;
         otherwise, it is "external".  (This will effect UPDATE
         processing as described below.)  Finally, the state is changed
         to OpenConfirm.

         If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
         transport protocol, the local system closes the BGP connection,
         restarts the ConnectRetry timer, while continue listening for
         connection that may be initiated by the remote BGP peer, and
         goes into the Active state.
         If the Hold Timer expires, the local system sends NOTIFICATION
         message with error code Hold Timer Expired and changes its
         state to Idle.

         In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
         operator) the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with
         Error Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

         Start event is ignored in the OpenSent state.

         In response to any other event the local system sends
         NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error
         and changes its state to Idle.

         Whenever BGP changes its state from OpenSent to Idle, it closes
         the BGP (and transport-level) connection and releases all
         resources associated with that connection.

      OpenConfirm state:

         In this state BGP waits for a KEEPALIVE or NOTIFICATION
         message.

         If the local system receives a KEEPALIVE message, it changes
         its state to Established.

         If the Hold Timer expires before a KEEPALIVE message is
         received, the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with
         error code Hold Timer Expired and changes its state to Idle.

         If the local system receives a NOTIFICATION message, it changes
         its state to Idle.

         If the KeepAlive timer expires, the local system sends a
         KEEPALIVE message and restarts its KeepAlive timer.

         If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
         transport protocol, the local system changes its state to Idle.

         In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
         operator) the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with
         Error Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

         Start event is ignored in the OpenConfirm state.

         In response to any other event the local system sends
         NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error
         and changes its state to Idle.
         Whenever BGP changes its state from OpenConfirm to Idle, it
         closes the BGP (and transport-level) connection and releases
         all resources associated with that connection.

      Established state:

         In the Established state BGP can exchange UPDATE, NOTIFICATION,
         and KEEPALIVE messages with its peer.

         If the local system receives an UPDATE or KEEPALIVE message, it
         restarts its Hold Timer, if the negotiated Hold Time value is
         non-zero.

         If the local system receives a NOTIFICATION message, it changes
         its state to Idle.

         If the local system receives an UPDATE message and the UPDATE
         message error handling procedure (see Section 6.3) detects an
         error, the local system sends a NOTIFICATION message and
         changes its state to Idle.

         If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
         transport protocol, the local system changes its state to Idle.

         If the Hold Timer expires, the local system sends a
         NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Hold Timer Expired and
         changes its state to Idle.

         If the KeepAlive timer expires, the local system sends a
         KEEPALIVE message and restarts its KeepAlive timer.

         Each time the local system sends a KEEPALIVE or UPDATE message,
         it restarts its KeepAlive timer, unless the negotiated Hold
         Time value is zero.

         In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
         operator), the local system sends a NOTIFICATION message with
         Error Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

         Start event is ignored in the Established state.

         In response to any other event, the local system sends
         NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error
         and changes its state to Idle.

         Whenever BGP changes its state from Established to Idle, it
         closes the BGP (and transport-level) connection, releases all
         resources associated with that connection, and deletes all
         routes derived from that connection.


Next: 9. UPDATE Message Handling

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
8. BGP Finite State machine.

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