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4.3. Events Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
4.3. Events

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4.3. Events

4.3. Events

Transitions and actions in the automaton are caused by events.

Up

This event occurs when a lower layer indicates that it is ready to carry packets.

Typically, this event is used by a modem handling or calling process, or by some other coupling of the PPP link to the physical media, to signal LCP that the link is entering Link Establishment phase.

It also can be used by LCP to signal each NCP that the link is entering Network-Layer Protocol phase. That is, the This-Layer-Up action from LCP triggers the Up event in the NCP.

Down

This event occurs when a lower layer indicates that it is no longer ready to carry packets.

Typically, this event is used by a modem handling or calling process, or by some other coupling of the PPP link to the physical media, to signal LCP that the link is entering Link Dead phase.

It also can be used by LCP to signal each NCP that the link is leaving Network-Layer Protocol phase. That is, the This-Layer- Down action from LCP triggers the Down event in the NCP.

Open

This event indicates that the link is administratively available for traffic; that is, the network administrator (human or program) has indicated that the link is allowed to be Opened. When this event occurs, and the link is not in the Opened state, the automaton attempts to send configuration packets to the peer.

If the automaton is not able to begin configuration (the lower layer is Down, or a previous Close event has not completed), the establishment of the link is automatically delayed.

When a Terminate-Request is received, or other events occur which cause the link to become unavailable, the automaton will progress to a state where the link is ready to re-open. No additional administrative intervention is necessary.

Implementation Option:

    Experience has shown that users will execute an additional Open command when they want to renegotiate the link. This might indicate that new values are to be negotiated.

    Since this is not the meaning of the Open event, it is suggested that when an Open user command is executed in the Opened, Closing, Stopping, or Stopped states, the implementation issue a Down event, immediately followed by an Up event. Care must be taken that an intervening Down event cannot occur from another source.

    The Down followed by an Up will cause an orderly renegotiation of the link, by progressing through the Starting to the Request-Sent state. This will cause the renegotiation of the link, without any harmful side effects.

Close

This event indicates that the link is not available for traffic; that is, the network administrator (human or program) has indicated that the link is not allowed to be Opened. When this event occurs, and the link is not in the Closed state, the automaton attempts to terminate the connection. Futher attempts to re-configure the link are denied until a new Open event occurs.

Implementation Note:

    When authentication fails, the link SHOULD be terminated, to prevent attack by repetition and denial of service to other users. Since the link is administratively available (by definition), this can be accomplished by simulating a Close event to the LCP, immediately followed by an Open event. Care must be taken that an intervening Close event cannot occur from another source.

    The Close followed by an Open will cause an orderly termination of the link, by progressing through the Closing to the Stopping state, and the This-Layer-Finished action can disconnect the link. The automaton waits in the Stopped or Starting states for the next connection attempt.

Timeout (TO+,TO-)

This event indicates the expiration of the Restart timer. The Restart timer is used to time responses to Configure-Request and Terminate-Request packets.

The TO+ event indicates that the Restart counter continues to be greater than zero, which triggers the corresponding Configure- Request or Terminate-Request packet to be retransmitted.

The TO- event indicates that the Restart counter is not greater than zero, and no more packets need to be retransmitted.

Receive-Configure-Request (RCR+,RCR-)

This event occurs when a Configure-Request packet is received from the peer. The Configure-Request packet indicates the desire to open a connection and may specify Configuration Options. The Configure-Request packet is more fully described in a later section.

The RCR+ event indicates that the Configure-Request was acceptable, and triggers the transmission of a corresponding Configure-Ack.

The RCR- event indicates that the Configure-Request was unacceptable, and triggers the transmission of a corresponding Configure-Nak or Configure-Reject.

Implementation Note:

    These events may occur on a connection which is already in the Opened state. The implementation MUST be prepared to immediately renegotiate the Configuration Options.

Receive-Configure-Ack (RCA)

This event occurs when a valid Configure-Ack packet is received from the peer. The Configure-Ack packet is a positive response to a Configure-Request packet. An out of sequence or otherwise invalid packet is silently discarded.

Implementation Note:

    Since the correct packet has already been received before reaching the Ack-Rcvd or Opened states, it is extremely unlikely that another such packet will arrive. As specified, all invalid Ack/Nak/Rej packets are silently discarded, and do not affect the transitions of the automaton.

    However, it is not impossible that a correctly formed packet will arrive through a coincidentally-timed cross-connection. It is more likely to be the result of an implementation error. At the very least, this occurance SHOULD be logged.

Receive-Configure-Nak/Rej (RCN)

This event occurs when a valid Configure-Nak or Configure-Reject packet is received from the peer. The Configure-Nak and Configure-Reject packets are negative responses to a Configure- Request packet. An out of sequence or otherwise invalid packet is silently discarded.

Implementation Note:

    Although the Configure-Nak and Configure-Reject cause the same state transition in the automaton, these packets have significantly different effects on the Configuration Options sent in the resulting Configure-Request packet.

Receive-Terminate-Request (RTR)

This event occurs when a Terminate-Request packet is received. The Terminate-Request packet indicates the desire of the peer to close the connection.

Implementation Note:

    This event is not identical to the Close event (see above), and does not override the Open commands of the local network administrator. The implementation MUST be prepared to receive a new Configure-Request without network administrator intervention.

Receive-Terminate-Ack (RTA)

This event occurs when a Terminate-Ack packet is received from the peer. The Terminate-Ack packet is usually a response to a Terminate-Request packet. The Terminate-Ack packet may also indicate that the peer is in Closed or Stopped states, and serves to re-synchronize the link configuration.

Receive-Unknown-Code (RUC)

This event occurs when an un-interpretable packet is received from the peer. A Code-Reject packet is sent in response.

Receive-Code-Reject, Receive-Protocol-Reject (RXJ+,RXJ-)

This event occurs when a Code-Reject or a Protocol-Reject packet is received from the peer.

The RXJ+ event arises when the rejected value is acceptable, such as a Code-Reject of an extended code, or a Protocol-Reject of a NCP. These are within the scope of normal operation. The implementation MUST stop sending the offending packet type.

The RXJ- event arises when the rejected value is catastrophic, such as a Code-Reject of Configure-Request, or a Protocol-Reject of LCP! This event communicates an unrecoverable error that terminates the connection.

Receive-Echo-Request, Receive-Echo-Reply, Receive-Discard-Request (RXR)

This event occurs when an Echo-Request, Echo-Reply or Discard- Request packet is received from the peer. The Echo-Reply packet is a response to an Echo-Request packet. There is no reply to an Echo-Reply or Discard-Request packet.


Next: 4.4. Actions

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
4.3. Events

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