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8.2. Receiving protocol packets Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
8.2. Receiving protocol packets

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8.2. Receiving protocol packets

8.2. Receiving protocol packets

Whenever a protocol packet is received by the router it is marked with the interface it was received on. For routers that have virtual links configured, it may not be immediately obvious which interface to associate the packet with. For example, consider the Router RT11 depicted in Figure 6. If RT11 receives an OSPF protocol packet on its interface to Network N8, it may want to associate the packet with the interface to Area 2, or with the virtual link to Router RT10 (which is part of the backbone). In the following, we assume that the packet is initially associated with the non-virtual link.[3]

In order for the packet to be accepted at the IP level, it must pass a number of tests, even before the packet is passed to OSPF for processing:

  • The IP checksum must be correct.

  • The packet's IP destination address must be the IP address of the receiving interface, or one of the IP multicast addresses AllSPFRouters or AllDRouters.

  • The IP protocol specified must be OSPF (89).

  • Locally originated packets should not be passed on to OSPF. That is, the source IP address should be examined to make sure this is not a multicast packet that the router itself generated.

Next, the OSPF packet header is verified. The fields specified in the header must match those configured for the receiving interface. If they do not, the packet should be discarded:

  • The version number field must specify protocol version 2.

  • The 16-bit one's complement checksum of the OSPF packet's contents must be verified. Remember that the 64-bit authentication field must be excluded from the checksum calculation.

  • The Area ID found in the OSPF header must be verified. If both of the following cases fail, the packet should be discarded. The Area ID specified in the header must either:

    1. Match the Area ID of the receiving interface. In this case, the packet has been sent over a single hop. Therefore, the packet's IP source address must be on the same network as the receiving interface. This can be determined by comparing the packet's IP source address to the interface's IP address, after masking both addresses with the interface mask. This comparison should not be performed on point-to-point networks. On point-to-point networks, the interface addresses of each end of the link are assigned independently, if they are assigned at all.

    2. Indicate the backbone. In this case, the packet has been sent over a virtual link. The receiving router must be an area border router, and the Router ID specified in the packet (the source router) must be the other end of a configured virtual link. The receiving interface must also attach to the virtual link's configured Transit area. If all of these checks succeed, the packet is accepted and is from now on associated with the virtual link (and the backbone area).

  • Packets whose IP destination is AllDRouters should only be accepted if the state of the receiving interface is DR or Backup (see Section 9.1).

  • The AuType specified in the packet must match the AuType specified for the associated area.

Next, the packet must be authenticated. This depends on the AuType specified (see Appendix D). The authentication procedure may use an Authentication key, which can be configured on a per-interface basis. If the authentication fails, the packet should be discarded.

If the packet type is Hello, it should then be further processed by the Hello Protocol (see Section 10.5). All other packet types are sent/received only on adjacencies. This means that the packet must have been sent by one of the router's active neighbors. If the receiving interface is a multi-access network (either broadcast or non-broadcast) the sender is identified by the IP source address found in the packet's IP header. If the receiving interface is a point-to-point link or a virtual link, the sender is identified by the Router ID (source router) found in the packet's OSPF header. The data structure associated with the receiving interface contains the list of active neighbors. Packets not matching any active neighbor are discarded.

At this point all received protocol packets are associated with an active neighbor. For the further input processing of specific packet types, consult the sections listed in Table 11.

              Type   Packet name            detailed section (receive)
              1      Hello                  Section 10.5
              2      Database description   Section 10.6
              3      Link state request     Section 10.7
              4      Link state update      Section 13
              5      Link state ack         Section 13.7

            Table 11: Sections describing OSPF protocol packet reception.

Next: 9. The Interface Data Structure

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
8.2. Receiving protocol packets


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