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6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications

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6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications

6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications

The Kerberos protocols described in this document are designed to use stream encryption ciphers, which can be simulated using commonly available block encryption ciphers, such as the Data Encryption Standard [11], in conjunction with block chaining and checksum methods [12]. Encryption is used to prove the identities of the network entities participating in message exchanges. The Key Distribution Center for each realm is trusted by all principals registered in that realm to store a secret key in confidence. Proof of knowledge of this secret key is used to verify the authenticity of a principal.

The KDC uses the principal's secret key (in the AS exchange) or a shared session key (in the TGS exchange) to encrypt responses to ticket requests; the ability to obtain the secret key or session key implies the knowledge of the appropriate keys and the identity of the KDC. The ability of a principal to decrypt the KDC response and present a Ticket and a properly formed Authenticator (generated with the session key from the KDC response) to a service verifies the identity of the principal; likewise the ability of the service to extract the session key from the Ticket and prove its knowledge thereof in a response verifies the identity of the service.

The Kerberos protocols generally assume that the encryption used is secure from cryptanalysis; however, in some cases, the order of fields in the encrypted portions of messages are arranged to minimize the effects of poorly chosen keys. It is still important to choose good keys. If keys are derived from user-typed passwords, those passwords need to be well chosen to make brute force attacks more difficult. Poorly chosen keys still make easy targets for intruders.

The following sections specify the encryption and checksum mechanisms currently defined for Kerberos. The encodings, chaining, and padding requirements for each are described. For encryption methods, it is often desirable to place random information (often referred to as a confounder) at the start of the message. The requirements for a confounder are specified with each encryption mechanism.

Some encryption systems use a block-chaining method to improve the the security characteristics of the ciphertext. However, these chaining methods often don't provide an integrity check upon decryption. Such systems (such as DES in CBC mode) must be augmented with a checksum of the plaintext which can be verified at decryption and used to detect any tampering or damage. Such checksums should be good at detecting burst errors in the input. If any damage is detected, the decryption routine is expected to return an error indicating the failure of an integrity check. Each encryption type is expected to provide and verify an appropriate checksum. The specification of each encryption method sets out its checksum requirements.

Finally, where a key is to be derived from a user's password, an algorithm for converting the password to a key of the appropriate type is included. It is desirable for the string to key function to be one-way, and for the mapping to be different in different realms. This is important because users who are registered in more than one realm will often use the same password in each, and it is desirable that an attacker compromising the Kerberos server in one realm not obtain or derive the user's key in another.

For a discussion of the integrity characteristics of the candidate encryption and checksum methods considered for Kerberos, the the reader is referred to [13].


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Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications

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