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1.2. Environmental assumptions Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
1.2. Environmental assumptions

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1.2. Environmental assumptions

1.2. Environmental assumptions

Kerberos imposes a few assumptions on the environment in which it can properly function:

  • "Denial of service" attacks are not solved with Kerberos. There are places in these protocols where an intruder intruder can prevent an application from participating in the proper authentication steps. Detection and solution of such attacks (some of which can appear to be not-uncommon "normal" failure modes for the system) is usually best left to the human administrators and users.

  • Principals must keep their secret keys secret. If an intruder somehow steals a principal's key, it will be able to masquerade as that principal or impersonate any server to the legitimate principal.

  • "Password guessing" attacks are not solved by Kerberos. If a user chooses a poor password, it is possible for an attacker to successfully mount an offline dictionary attack by repeatedly attempting to decrypt, with successive entries from a dictionary, messages obtained which are encrypted under a key derived from the user's password.

  • Each host on the network must have a clock which is "loosely synchronized" to the time of the other hosts; this synchronization is used to reduce the bookkeeping needs of application servers when they do replay detection. The degree of "looseness" can be configured on a per-server basis. If the clocks are synchronized over the network, the clock synchronization protocol must itself be secured from network attackers.

  • Principal identifiers are not recycled on a short-term basis. A typical mode of access control will use access control lists (ACLs) to grant permissions to particular principals. If a stale ACL entry remains for a deleted principal and the principal identifier is reused, the new principal will inherit rights specified in the stale ACL entry. By not re-using principal identifiers, the danger of inadvertent access is removed.


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1.2. Environmental assumptions

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