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3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message

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3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message

3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message

Authentication is based on the server's current time of day (clocks must be loosely synchronized), the authenticator, and the ticket. Several errors are possible. If an error occurs, the server is expected to reply to the client with a KRB_ERROR message. This message may be encapsulated in the application protocol if its "raw" form is not acceptable to the protocol. The format of error messages is described in section 5.9.1.

The algorithm for verifying authentication information is as follows. If the message type is not KRB_AP_REQ, the server returns the KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE error. If the key version indicated by the Ticket in the KRB_AP_REQ is not one the server can use (e.g., it indicates an old key, and the server no longer possesses a copy of the old key), the KRB_AP_ERR_BADKEYVER error is returned. If the USE- SESSION-KEY flag is set in the ap-options field, it indicates to the server that the ticket is encrypted in the session key from the server's ticket-granting ticket rather than its secret key (This is used for user-to-user authentication as described in [6]). Since it is possible for the server to be registered in multiple realms, with different keys in each, the srealm field in the unencrypted portion of the ticket in the KRB_AP_REQ is used to specify which secret key the server should use to decrypt that ticket. The KRB_AP_ERR_NOKEY error code is returned if the server doesn't have the proper key to decipher the ticket.

The ticket is decrypted using the version of the server's key specified by the ticket. If the decryption routines detect a modification of the ticket (each encryption system must provide safeguards to detect modified ciphertext; see section 6), the KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is returned (chances are good that different keys were used to encrypt and decrypt).

The authenticator is decrypted using the session key extracted from the decrypted ticket. If decryption shows it to have been modified, the KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is returned. The name and realm of the client from the ticket are compared against the same fields in the authenticator. If they don't match, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADMATCH error is returned (they might not match, for example, if the wrong session key was used to encrypt the authenticator). The addresses in the ticket (if any) are then searched for an address matching the operating-system reported address of the client. If no match is found or the server insists on ticket addresses but none are present in the ticket, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR error is returned.

If the local (server) time and the client time in the authenticator differ by more than the allowable clock skew (e.g., 5 minutes), the KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW error is returned. If the server name, along with the client name, time and microsecond fields from the Authenticator match any recently-seen such tuples, the KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT error is returned (Note that the rejection here is restricted to authenticators from the same principal to the same server. Other client principals communicating with the same server principal should not be have their authenticators rejected if the time and microsecond fields happen to match some other client's authenticator.). The server must remember any authenticator presented within the allowable clock skew, so that a replay attempt is guaranteed to fail. If a server loses track of any authenticator presented within the allowable clock skew, it must reject all requests until the clock skew interval has passed. This assures that any lost or re-played authenticators will fall outside the allowable clock skew and can no longer be successfully replayed (If this is not done, an attacker could conceivably record the ticket and authenticator sent over the network to a server, then disable the client's host, pose as the disabled host, and replay the ticket and authenticator to subvert the authentication.). If a sequence number is provided in the authenticator, the server saves it for later use in processing KRB_SAFE and/or KRB_PRIV messages. If a subkey is present, the server either saves it for later use or uses it to help generate its own choice for a subkey to be returned in a KRB_AP_REP message.

The server computes the age of the ticket: local (server) time minus the start time inside the Ticket. If the start time is later than the current time by more than the allowable clock skew or if the INVALID flag is set in the ticket, the KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_NYV error is returned. Otherwise, if the current time is later than end time by more than the allowable clock skew, the KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_EXPIRED error is returned.

If all these checks succeed without an error, the server is assured that the client possesses the credentials of the principal named in the ticket and thus, the client has been authenticated to the server. See section A.10 for pseudocode.


Next: 3.2.4. Generation of a KRB_AP_REP message

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3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message

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