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A.2 Compression Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
A.2 Compression

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Next: A.3 Decompression

A.2 Compression

A.2 Compression

This routine looks daunting but isn't really. The code splits into four approximately equal sized sections: The first quarter manages a circularly linked, least-recently-used list of `active' TCP connections./47/ The second figures out the sequence/ack/window/urg changes and builds the bulk of the compressed packet. The third handles the special-case encodings. The last quarter does packet ID and connection ID encoding and replaces the original packet header with the compressed header.

The arguments to this routine are a pointer to a packet to be compressed, a pointer to the compression state data for the serial line, and a flag which enables or disables connection id (C bit) compression.

Compression is done `in-place' so, if a compressed packet is created, both the start address and length of the incoming packet (the off and len fields of m) will be updated to reflect the removal of the original header and its replacement by the compressed header. If either a compressed or uncompressed packet is created, the compression state is updated. This routines returns the packet type for the transmit framer (TYPE_IP, TYPE_UNCOMPRESSED_TCP or TYPE_COMPRESSED_TCP).

Because 16 and 32 bit arithmetic is done on various header fields, the incoming IP packet must be aligned appropriately (e.g., on a SPARC, the IP header is aligned on a 32-bit boundary). Substantial changes would have to be made to the code below if this were not true (and it would probably be cheaper to byte copy the incoming header to somewhere correctly aligned than to make those changes).

Note that the outgoing packet will be aligned arbitrarily (e.g., it could easily start on an odd-byte boundary).

   sl_compress_tcp(m, comp, compress_cid)
        struct mbuf *m;
        struct slcompress *comp;
        int compress_cid;
        register struct cstate *cs = comp->last_cs->cs_next;
        register struct ip *ip = mtod(m, struct ip *);
        register u_int hlen = ip->ip_hl;
        register struct tcphdr *oth;       /* last TCP header */
        register struct tcphdr *th;        /* current TCP header */

        register u_int deltaS, deltaA;     /* general purpose temporaries */
        register u_int changes = 0;        /* change mask */
        u_char new_seq[16];                /* changes from last to current */
        register u_char *cp = new_seq;

         * Bail if this is an IP fragment or if the TCP packet isn't
         * `compressible' (i.e., ACK isn't set or some other control bit is
         * set).  (We assume that the caller has already made sure the packet
         * is IP proto TCP).
        if ((ip->ip_off & htons(0x3fff)) || m->m_len < 40)
             return (TYPE_IP);

        th = (struct tcphdr *) & ((int *) ip)[hlen];
        if ((th->th_flags & (TH_SYN | TH_FIN | TH_RST | TH_ACK)) != TH_ACK)
             return (TYPE_IP);

         * Packet is compressible -- we're going to send either a
         * COMPRESSED_TCP or UNCOMPRESSED_TCP packet.  Either way we need to
         * locate (or create) the connection state.  Special case the most
         * recently used connection since it's most likely to be used again &
         * we don't have to do any reordering if it's used.
        if (ip->ip_src.s_addr != cs->cs_ip.ip_src.s_addr ||
            ip->ip_dst.s_addr != cs->cs_ip.ip_dst.s_addr ||
            *(int *) th != ((int *) &cs->cs_ip)[cs->cs_ip.ip_hl]) {

              * Wasn't the first -- search for it.
              * States are kept in a circularly linked list with last_cs
              * pointing to the end of the list.  The list is kept in lru
              * order by moving a state to the head of the list whenever
              * it is referenced.  Since the list is short and,
              * empirically, the connection we want is almost always near
              * the front, we locate states via linear search.  If we
              * don't find a state for the datagram, the oldest state is
              * (re-)used.
             register struct cstate *lcs;
             register struct cstate *lastcs = comp->last_cs;

             do {
                  lcs = cs;
                  cs = cs->cs_next;
                  if (ip->ip_src.s_addr == cs->cs_ip.ip_src.s_addr
                      && ip->ip_dst.s_addr == cs->cs_ip.ip_dst.s_addr
                      && *(int *) th == ((int *) &cs->cs_ip)[cs->cs_ip.ip_hl])
                       goto found;

             } while (cs != lastcs);

              * Didn't find it -- re-use oldest cstate.  Send an
              * uncompressed packet that tells the other side what
              * connection number we're using for this conversation. Note
              * that since the state list is circular, the oldest state
              * points to the newest and we only need to set last_cs to
              * update the lru linkage.
             comp->last_cs = lcs;
             hlen += th->th_off;
             hlen <<= 2;
             goto uncompressed;

             /* Found it -- move to the front on the connection list. */
             if (lastcs == cs)
                  comp->last_cs = lcs;
             else {
                  lcs->cs_next = cs->cs_next;
                  cs->cs_next = lastcs->cs_next;
                  lastcs->cs_next = cs;
         * Make sure that only what we expect to change changed. The first
         * line of the `if' checks the IP protocol version, header length &
         * type of service.  The 2nd line checks the "Don't fragment" bit.
         * The 3rd line checks the time-to-live and protocol (the protocol
         * check is unnecessary but costless).  The 4th line checks the TCP
         * header length.  The 5th line checks IP options, if any.  The 6th
         * line checks TCP options, if any.  If any of these things are
         * different between the previous & current datagram, we send the
         * current datagram `uncompressed'.
        oth = (struct tcphdr *) & ((int *) &cs->cs_ip)[hlen];
        deltaS = hlen;
        hlen += th->th_off;
        hlen <<= 2;

        if (((u_short *) ip)[0] != ((u_short *) &cs->cs_ip)[0] ||
            ((u_short *) ip)[3] != ((u_short *) &cs->cs_ip)[3] ||
            ((u_short *) ip)[4] != ((u_short *) &cs->cs_ip)[4] ||
            th->th_off != oth->th_off ||
            (deltaS > 5 && BCMP(ip + 1, &cs->cs_ip + 1, (deltaS - 5) << 2)) ||
            (th->th_off > 5 && BCMP(th + 1, oth + 1, (th->th_off - 5) << 2)))
             goto uncompressed;

         * Figure out which of the changing fields changed.  The receiver

         * expects changes in the order: urgent, window, ack, seq.
        if (th->th_flags & TH_URG) {
             deltaS = ntohs(th->th_urp);
             changes |= NEW_U;
        } else if (th->th_urp != oth->th_urp)
              * argh! URG not set but urp changed -- a sensible
              * implementation should never do this but RFC793 doesn't
              * prohibit the change so we have to deal with it.
             goto uncompressed;

        if (deltaS = (u_short) (ntohs(th->th_win) - ntohs(oth->th_win))) {
             changes |= NEW_W;
        if (deltaA = ntohl(th->th_ack) - ntohl(oth->th_ack)) {
             if (deltaA > 0xffff)
                  goto uncompressed;
             changes |= NEW_A;
        if (deltaS = ntohl(th->th_seq) - ntohl(oth->th_seq)) {
             if (deltaS > 0xffff)
                  goto uncompressed;
             changes |= NEW_S;
         * Look for the special-case encodings.
        switch (changes) {

        case 0:
              * Nothing changed. If this packet contains data and the last
              * one didn't, this is probably a data packet following an
              * ack (normal on an interactive connection) and we send it
              * compressed.  Otherwise it's probably a retransmit,
              * retransmitted ack or window probe.  Send it uncompressed
              * in case the other side missed the compressed version.
             if (ip->ip_len != cs->cs_ip.ip_len &&
                 ntohs(cs->cs_ip.ip_len) == hlen)

             /* (fall through) */

        case SPECIAL_I:

        case SPECIAL_D:
              * Actual changes match one of our special case encodings --
              * send packet uncompressed.
             goto uncompressed;

        case NEW_S | NEW_A:
             if (deltaS == deltaA &&
                 deltaS == ntohs(cs->cs_ip.ip_len) - hlen) {
                  /* special case for echoed terminal traffic */
                  changes = SPECIAL_I;
                  cp = new_seq;

        case NEW_S:
             if (deltaS == ntohs(cs->cs_ip.ip_len) - hlen) {
                  /* special case for data xfer */
                  changes = SPECIAL_D;
                  cp = new_seq;
        deltaS = ntohs(ip->ip_id) - ntohs(cs->cs_ip.ip_id);
        if (deltaS != 1) {
             changes |= NEW_I;
        if (th->th_flags & TH_PUSH)
             changes |= TCP_PUSH_BIT;
         * Grab the cksum before we overwrite it below.  Then update our
         * state with this packet's header.
        deltaA = ntohs(th->th_sum);
        BCOPY(ip, &cs->cs_ip, hlen);

         * We want to use the original packet as our compressed packet. (cp -
         * new_seq) is the number of bytes we need for compressed sequence
         * numbers.  In addition we need one byte for the change mask, one
         * for the connection id and two for the tcp checksum. So, (cp -
         * new_seq) + 4 bytes of header are needed.  hlen is how many bytes
         * of the original packet to toss so subtract the two to get the new
         * packet size.
        deltaS = cp - new_seq;
        cp = (u_char *) ip;
        if (compress_cid == 0 || comp->last_xmit != cs->cs_id) {
             comp->last_xmit = cs->cs_id;

             hlen -= deltaS + 4;
             cp += hlen;
             *cp++ = changes | NEW_C;
             *cp++ = cs->cs_id;
        } else {
             hlen -= deltaS + 3;
             cp += hlen;
             *cp++ = changes;
        m->m_len -= hlen;
        m->m_off += hlen;
        *cp++ = deltaA >> 8;
        *cp++ = deltaA;
        BCOPY(new_seq, cp, deltaS);
        return (TYPE_COMPRESSED_TCP);

         * Update connection state cs & send uncompressed packet
         * ('uncompressed' means a regular ip/tcp packet but with the
         * 'conversation id' we hope to use on future compressed packets in
         * the protocol field).
        BCOPY(ip, &cs->cs_ip, hlen);
        ip->ip_p = cs->cs_id;
        comp->last_xmit = cs->cs_id;
        return (TYPE_UNCOMPRESSED_TCP);

Next: A.3 Decompression

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
A.2 Compression


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