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1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions

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1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions

1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions

The current Internet architecture is based on a set of assumptions about the communication system. The assumptions most relevant to hosts are as follows:

  1. The Internet is a network of networks.

    Each host is directly connected to some particular network(s); its connection to the Internet is only conceptual. Two hosts on the same network communicate with each other using the same set of protocols that they would use to communicate with hosts on distant networks.

  2. Gateways don't keep connection state information.

    To improve robustness of the communication system, gateways are designed to be stateless, forwarding each IP datagram independently of other datagrams. As a result, redundant paths can be exploited to provide robust service in spite of failures of intervening gateways and networks.

    All state information required for end-to-end flow control and reliability is implemented in the hosts, in the transport layer or in application programs. All connection control information is thus co-located with the end points of the communication, so it will be lost only if an end point fails.

  3. Routing complexity should be in the gateways.

    Routing is a complex and difficult problem, and ought to be performed by the gateways, not the hosts. An important objective is to insulate host software from changes caused by the inevitable evolution of the Internet routing architecture.

  4. The System must tolerate wide network variation.

    A basic objective of the Internet design is to tolerate a wide range of network characteristics -- e.g., bandwidth, delay, packet loss, packet reordering, and maximum packet size. Another objective is robustness against failure of individual networks, gateways, and hosts, using whatever bandwidth is still available. Finally, the goal is full "open system interconnection": an Internet host must be able to interoperate robustly and effectively with any other Internet host, across diverse Internet paths.

Sometimes host implementors have designed for less ambitious goals. For example, the LAN environment is typically much more benign than the Internet as a whole; LANs have low packet loss and delay and do not reorder packets. Some vendors have fielded host implementations that are adequate for a simple LAN environment, but work badly for general interoperation. The vendor justifies such a product as being economical within the restricted LAN market. However, isolated LANs seldom stay isolated for long; they are soon gatewayed to each other, to organization-wide internets, and eventually to the global Internet system. In the end, neither the customer nor the vendor is served by incomplete or substandard Internet host software.

The requirements spelled out in this document are designed for a full-function Internet host, capable of full interoperation over an arbitrary Internet path.


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Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
1.1.2 Architectural Assumptions

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