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3.1 INTRODUCTION Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia

Up: Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
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Up: RFC 1122



The Robustness Principle: "Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send" is particularly important in the Internet layer, where one misbehaving host can deny Internet service to many other hosts.

The protocol standards used in the Internet layer are:

  • RFC-791 [IP:1] defines the IP protocol and gives an introduction to the architecture of the Internet.

  • RFC-792 [IP:2] defines ICMP, which provides routing, diagnostic and error functionality for IP. Although ICMP messages are encapsulated within IP datagrams, ICMP processing is considered to be (and is typically implemented as) part of the IP layer. See Section 3.2.2.

  • RFC-950 [IP:3] defines the mandatory subnet extension to the addressing architecture.

  • RFC-1112 [IP:4] defines the Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP, as part of a recommended extension to hosts and to the host-gateway interface to support Internet-wide multicasting at the IP level. See Section 3.2.3.

    The target of an IP multicast may be an arbitrary group of Internet hosts. IP multicasting is designed as a natural extension of the link-layer multicasting facilities of some networks, and it provides a standard means for local access to such link-layer multicasting facilities.

Other important references are listed in Section 5 of this document.

The Internet layer of host software MUST implement both IP and ICMP. See Section 3.3.7 for the requirements on support of IGMP.

The host IP layer has two basic functions: (1) choose the "next hop" gateway or host for outgoing IP datagrams and (2) reassemble incoming IP datagrams. The IP layer may also (3) implement intentional fragmentation of outgoing datagrams. Finally, the IP layer must (4) provide diagnostic and error functionality. We expect that IP layer functions may increase somewhat in the future, as further Internet control and management facilities are developed.

For normal datagrams, the processing is straightforward. For incoming datagrams, the IP layer:

  1. verifies that the datagram is correctly formatted;

  2. verifies that it is destined to the local host;

  3. processes options;

  4. reassembles the datagram if necessary; and

  5. passes the encapsulated message to the appropriate transport-layer protocol module.

For outgoing datagrams, the IP layer:

  1. sets any fields not set by the transport layer;

  2. selects the correct first hop on the connected network (a process called "routing");

  3. fragments the datagram if necessary and if intentional fragmentation is implemented (see Section 3.3.3); and

  4. passes the packet(s) to the appropriate link-layer driver.

A host is said to be multihomed if it has multiple IP addresses. Multihoming introduces considerable confusion and complexity into the protocol suite, and it is an area in which the Internet architecture falls seriously short of solving all problems. There are two distinct problem areas in multihoming:

  1. Local multihoming -- the host itself is multihomed; or

  2. Remote multihoming -- the local host needs to communicate with a remote multihomed host.

At present, remote multihoming MUST be handled at the application layer, as discussed in the companion RFC [INTRO:1]. A host MAY support local multihoming, which is discussed in this document, and in particular in Section 3.3.4.

Any host that forwards datagrams generated by another host is acting as a gateway and MUST also meet the specifications laid out in the gateway requirements RFC [INTRO:2]. An Internet host that includes embedded gateway code MUST have a configuration switch to disable the gateway function, and this switch MUST default to the non-gateway mode. In this mode, a datagram arriving through one interface will not be forwarded to another host or gateway (unless it is source-routed), regardless of whether the host is single- homed or multihomed. The host software MUST NOT automatically move into gateway mode if the host has more than one interface, as the operator of the machine may neither want to provide that service nor be competent to do so.

In the following, the action specified in certain cases is to "silently discard" a received datagram. This means that the datagram will be discarded without further processing and that the host will not send any ICMP error message (see Section 3.2.2) as a result. However, for diagnosis of problems a host SHOULD provide the capability of logging the error (see Section 1.2.3), including the contents of the silently-discarded datagram, and SHOULD record the event in a statistics counter.


Silent discard of erroneous datagrams is generally intended to prevent "broadcast storms".


Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia


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