The receiver's SWS avoidance algorithm determines when
the right window edge may be advanced; this is
customarily known as "updating the window". This
algorithm combines with the delayed ACK algorithm (see
Section 18.104.22.168) to determine when an ACK segment
containing the current window will really be sent to
the receiver. We use the notation of RFC-793; see
Figures 4 and 5 in that document.
The solution to receiver SWS is to avoid advancing the
right window edge RCV.NXT+RCV.WND in small increments,
even if data is received from the network in small
Suppose the total receive buffer space is RCV.BUFF. At
any given moment, RCV.USER octets of this total may be
tied up with data that has been received and
acknowledged but which the user process has not yet
consumed. When the connection is quiescent, RCV.WND =
RCV.BUFF and RCV.USER = 0.
Keeping the right window edge fixed as data arrives and
is acknowledged requires that the receiver offer less
than its full buffer space, i.e., the receiver must
specify a RCV.WND that keeps RCV.NXT+RCV.WND constant
as RCV.NXT increases. Thus, the total buffer space
RCV.BUFF is generally divided into three parts:
|<------- RCV.BUFF ---------------->|
1 2 3
1 - RCV.USER = data received but not yet consumed;
2 - RCV.WND = space advertised to sender;
3 - Reduction = space available but not yet
The suggested SWS avoidance algorithm for the receiver
is to keep RCV.NXT+RCV.WND fixed until the reduction
RCV.BUFF - RCV.USER - RCV.WND >=
min( Fr * RCV.BUFF, Eff.snd.MSS )
where Fr is a fraction whose recommended value is 1/2,
and Eff.snd.MSS is the effective send MSS for the
connection (see Section 22.214.171.124). When the inequality
is satisfied, RCV.WND is set to RCV.BUFF-RCV.USER.
Note that the general effect of this algorithm is to
advance RCV.WND in increments of Eff.snd.MSS (for
realistic receive buffers: Eff.snd.MSS < RCV.BUFF/2).
Note also that the receiver must use its own
Eff.snd.MSS, assuming it is the same as the sender's.