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APPENDIX I. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (IGMP) Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
APPENDIX I. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (IGMP)

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APPENDIX I. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (IGMP)

APPENDIX I. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (IGMP)

The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IP hosts to report their host group memberships to any immediately-neighboring multicast routers. IGMP is an asymmetric protocol and is specified here from the point of view of a host, rather than a multicast router. (IGMP may also be used, symmetrically or asymmetrically, between multicast routers. Such use is not specified here.)

Like ICMP, IGMP is a integral part of IP. It is required to be implemented by all hosts conforming to level 2 of the IP multicasting specification. IGMP messages are encapsulated in IP datagrams, with an IP protocol number of 2. All IGMP messages of concern to hosts have the following format:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |Version| Type  |    Unused     |           Checksum            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                         Group Address                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Version

         This memo specifies version 1 of IGMP.  Version 0 is specified
         in RFC-988 and is now obsolete.

      Type

         There are two types of IGMP message of concern to hosts:

            1 = Host Membership Query
            2 = Host Membership Report

      Unused

         Unused field, zeroed when sent, ignored when received.

      Checksum

         The checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's
         complement sum of the 8-octet IGMP message.  For computing
         the checksum, the checksum field is zeroed.

      Group Address

         In a Host Membership Query message, the group address field
         is zeroed when sent, ignored when received.

         In a Host Membership Report message, the group address field
         holds the IP host group address of the group being reported.

Informal Protocol Description

Multicast routers send Host Membership Query messages (hereinafter called Queries) to discover which host groups have members on their attached local networks. Queries are addressed to the all-hosts group (address 224.0.0.1), and carry an IP time-to-live of 1.

Hosts respond to a Query by generating Host Membership Reports (hereinafter called Reports), reporting each host group to which they belong on the network interface from which the Query was received. In order to avoid an "implosion" of concurrent Reports and to reduce the total number of Reports transmitted, two techniques are used:

  1. When a host receives a Query, rather than sending Reports immediately, it starts a report delay timer for each of its group memberships on the network interface of the incoming Query. Each timer is set to a different, randomly-chosen value between zero and D seconds. When a timer expires, a Report is generated for the corresponding host group. Thus, Reports are spread out over a D second interval instead of all occurring at once.

  2. A Report is sent with an IP destination address equal to the host group address being reported, and with an IP time-to-live of 1, so that other members of the same group on the same network can overhear the Report. If a host hears a Report for a group to which it belongs on that network, the host stops its own timer for that group and does not generate a Report for that group. Thus, in the normal case, only one Report will be generated for each group present on the network, by the member host whose delay timer expires first. Note that the multicast routers receive all IP multicast datagrams, and therefore need not be addressed explicitly. Further note that the routers need not know which hosts belong to a group, only that at least one host belongs to a group on a particular network.

There are two exceptions to the behavior described above. First, if a report delay timer is already running for a group membership when a Query is received, that timer is not reset to a new random value, but rather allowed to continue running with its current value. Second, a report delay timer is never set for a host's membership in the all- hosts group (224.0.0.1), and that membership is never reported. If a host uses a pseudo-random number generator to compute the reporting delays, one of the host's own individual IP address should be used as part of the seed for the generator, to reduce the chance of multiple hosts generating the same sequence of delays.

A host should confirm that a received Report has the same IP host group address in its IP destination field and its IGMP group address field, to ensure that the host's own Report is not cancelled by an erroneous received Report. A host should quietly discard any IGMP message of type other than Host Membership Query or Host Membership Report.

Multicast routers send Queries periodically to refresh their knowledge of memberships present on a particular network. If no Reports are received for a particular group after some number of Queries, the routers assume that that group has no local members and that they need not forward remotely-originated multicasts for that group onto the local network. Queries are normally sent infrequently (no more than once a minute) so as to keep the IGMP overhead on hosts and networks very low. However, when a multicast router starts up, it may issue several closely-spaced Queries in order to build up its knowledge of local memberships quickly.

When a host joins a new group, it should immediately transmit a Report for that group, rather than waiting for a Query, in case it is the first member of that group on the network. To cover the possibility of the initial Report being lost or damaged, it is recommended that it be repeated once or twice after short delays. (A simple way to accomplish this is to act as if a Query had been received for that group only, setting the group's random report delay timer. The state transition diagram below illustrates this approach.)

Note that, on a network with no multicast routers present, the only IGMP traffic is the one or more Reports sent whenever a host joins a new group.

State Transition Diagram

IGMP behavior is more formally specified by the state transition diagram below. A host may be in one of three possible states, with respect to any single IP host group on any single network interface:

  • Non-Member state, when the host does not belong to the group on the interface. This is the initial state for all memberships on all network interfaces; it requires no storage in the host.
  • Delaying Member state, when the host belongs to the group on the interface and has a report delay timer running for that membership.
  • Idle Member state, when the host belongs to the group on the interface and does not have a report delay timer running for that membership.

There are five significant events that can cause IGMP state transitions:

  • "join group" occurs when the host decides to join the group on the interface. It may occur only in the Non-Member state.
  • "leave group" occurs when the host decides to leave the group on the interface. It may occur only in the Delaying Member and Idle Member states.
  • "query received" occurs when the host receives a valid IGMP Host Membership Query message. To be valid, the Query message must be at least 8 octets long, have a correct IGMP checksum and have an IP destination address of 224.0.0.1. A single Query applies to all memberships on the interface from which the Query is received. It is ignored for memberships in the Non-Member or Delaying Member state.
  • "report received" occurs when the host receives a valid IGMP Host Membership Report message. To be valid, the Report message must be at least 8 octets long, have a correct IGMP checksum, and contain the same IP host group address in its IP destination field and its IGMP group address field. A Report applies only to the membership in the group identified by the Report, on the interface from which the Report is received. It is ignored for memberships in the Non-Member or Idle Member state.
  • "timer expired" occurs when the report delay timer for the group on the interface expires. It may occur only in the Delaying Member state.

All other events, such as receiving invalid IGMP messages, or IGMP messages other than Query or Report, are ignored in all states.

There are three possible actions that may be taken in response to the above events:

  • "send report" for the group on the interface.
  • "start timer" for the group on the interface, using a random delay value between 0 and D seconds.
  • "stop timer" for the group on the interface.

In the following diagram, each state transition arc is labelled with the event that causes the transition, and, in parentheses, any actions taken during the transition.

                              ________________
                             |                |
                             |                |
                             |                |
                             |                |
                   --------->|   Non-Member   |<---------
                  |          |                |          |
                  |          |                |          |
                  |          |                |          |
                  |          |________________|          |
                  |                   |                  |
                  | leave group       | join group       | leave group
                  | (stop timer)      |(send report,     |
                  |                   | start timer)     |
          ________|________           |          ________|________
         |                 |<---------          |                 |
         |                 |                    |                 |
         |                 |<-------------------|                 |
         |                 |   query received   |                 |
         | Delaying Member |    (start timer)   |   Idle Member   |
         |                 |------------------->|                 |
         |                 |   report received  |                 |
         |                 |    (stop timer)    |                 |
         |_________________|------------------->|_________________|
                                timer expired
                                (send report)

The all-hosts group (address 224.0.0.1) is handled as a special case. The host starts in Idle Member state for that group on every interface, never transitions to another state, and never sends a report for that group.

Protocol Parameters

The maximum report delay, D, is 10 seconds.


Next: APPENDIX II. HOST GROUP ADDRESS ISSUES

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
APPENDIX I. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (IGMP)

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