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3.4.2. Response Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
3.4.2. Response

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3.4.2. Response

3.4.2. Response

Responses can be received for several different reasons:

      response to a specific query
      regular updates
      triggered updates triggered by a metric change

Processing is the same no matter how responses were generated.

Because processing of a response may update the host's routing table, the response must be checked carefully for validity. The response must be ignored if it is not from port 520. The IP source address should be checked to see whether the datagram is from a valid neighbor. The source of the datagram must be on a directly-connected network. It is also worth checking to see whether the response is from one of the host's own addresses. Interfaces on broadcast networks may receive copies of their own broadcasts immediately. If a host processes its own output as new input, confusion is likely, and such datagrams must be ignored (except as discussed in the next paragraph).

Before actually processing a response, it may be useful to use its presence as input to a process for keeping track of interface status. As mentioned above, we time out a route when we haven't heard from its gateway for a certain amount of time. This works fine for routes that come from another gateway. It is also desirable to know when one of our own directly-connected networks has failed. This document does not specify any particular method for doing this, as such methods depend upon the characteristics of the network and the hardware interface to it. However, such methods often involve listening for datagrams arriving on the interface. Arriving datagrams can be used as an indication that the interface is working. However, some caution must be used, as it is possible for interfaces to fail in such a way that input datagrams are received, but output datagrams are never sent successfully.

Now that the datagram as a whole has been validated, process the entries in it one by one. Again, start by doing validation. If the metric is greater than infinity, ignore the entry. (This should be impossible, if the other host is working correctly. Incorrect metrics and other format errors should probably cause alerts or be logged.) Then look at the destination address. Check the address family identifier. If it is not a value which is expected (e.g., 2 for Internet addresses), ignore the entry. Now check the address itself for various kinds of inappropriate addresses. Ignore the entry if the address is class D or E, if it is on net 0 (except for 0.0.0.0, if we accept default routes) or if it is on net 127 (the loopback network). Also, test for a broadcast address, i.e., anything whose host part is all ones on a network that supports broadcast, and ignore any such entry. If the implementor has chosen not to support host routes (see section 3.2), check to see whether the host portion of the address is non-zero; if so, ignore the entry.

Recall that the address field contains a number of unused octets. If the version number of the datagram is 1, they must also be checked. If any of them is nonzero, the entry is to be ignored. (Many of these cases indicate that the host from which the message came is not working correctly. Thus some form of error logging or alert should be triggered.)

Update the metric by adding the cost of the network on which the message arrived. If the result is greater than 16, use 16. That is,

      metric = MIN (metric + cost, 16)

Now look up the address to see whether this is already a route for it. In general, if not, we want to add one. However, there are various exceptions. If the metric is infinite, don't add an entry. (We would update an existing one, but we don't add new entries with infinite metric.) We want to avoid adding routes to hosts if the host is part of a net or subnet for which we have at least as good a route. If neither of these exceptions applies, add a new entry to the routing database. This includes the following actions:

  • Set the destination and metric to those from the datagram.
  • Set the gateway to be the host from which the datagram came.
  • Initialize the timeout for the route. If the garbage- collection timer is running for this route, stop it. (See section 3.3 for a discussion of the timers.)
  • Set the route change flag, and signal the output process to trigger an update (see 3.5).

If there is an existing route, first compare gateways. If this datagram is from the same gateway as the existing route, reinitialize the timeout. Next compare metrics. If the datagram is from the same gateway as the existing route and the new metric is different than the old one, or if the new metric is lower than the old one, do the following actions:

  • adopt the route from the datagram. That is, put the new metric in, and set the gateway to be the host from which the datagram came.
  • Initialize the timeout for the route.
  • Set the route change flag, and signal the output process to trigger an update (see 3.5).
  • If the new metric is 16 (infinity), the deletion process is started.

If the new metric is 16 (infinity), this starts the process for deleting the route. The route is no longer used for routing packets, and the deletion timer is started (see section 3.3). Note that a deletion is started only when the metric is first set to 16. If the metric was already 16, then a new deletion is not started. (Starting a deletion sets a timer. The concern is that we do not want to reset the timer every 30 seconds, as new messages arrive with an infinite metric.)

If the new metric is the same as the old one, it is simplest to do nothing further (beyond reinitializing the timeout, as specified above). However, the 4BSD routed uses an additional heuristic here. Normally, it is senseless to change to a route with the same metric as the existing route but a different gateway. If the existing route is showing signs of timing out, though, it may be better to switch to an equally-good alternative route immediately, rather than waiting for the timeout to happen. (See section 3.3 for a discussion of timeouts.) Therefore, if the new metric is the same as the old one, routed looks at the timeout for the existing route. If it is at least halfway to the expiration point, routed switches to the new route. That is, the gateway is changed to the source of the current message. This heuristic is optional.

Any entry that fails these tests is ignored, as it is no better than the current route.


Next: 3.5. Output Processing

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
3.4.2. Response

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